Clustering Analysis of Turkish Maritime Transportation Sector


Cengiz Bahadır Karahan
Ph.D. Candidate, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, cbkarahan@itu.edu.tr

Levent Kırval
Assoc. Prof., Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, lkirval@itu.edu.tr

Abstract

Turkey is a maritime country with its current fleet, geographical location, young population and growth potential. This study aims to measure and map the main characteristics of Turkish maritime transportation sector by using the cluster approach. Clustering, being one of the important improvement methods of global competition power, is widely used in the maritime transportation sector. Analysing the maritime clustering potential in a quantative way is a basic step to increase the global competitiveness in this sector. In this context, the level of Turkish maritime transportation cluster is measured by means of Location Quotient (LQ) in this article. It concludes that among the 6 statistically grouped counties, TR 10 Istanbul county is showing significant potential according to all variables.

Keywords: Location Quotient, Competitiveness, Clusters, Maritime Clusters, Maritime Transportation Sector

Türk Deniz Taşımacılığı Sektörünün Kümelenme Analizi


Öz

Türkiye sahip olduğu mevcut filosu, coğrafi konumu, genç nüfusu ve büyüme potansiyeli ile önemli bir denizcilik ülkesidir. Bu çalışma kümelenme yaklaşımını kullanarak Türk deniz taşımacılığı sektörünün ana özelliklerini ölçmeyi ve haritalandırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Küresel rekabet gücünün geliştirilmesinde önemli bir kavram olan kümelenme deniz taşımacılığı sektöründe de yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Türk deniz taşımacılığı sektörünün özellikle sayısal yöntemler kullanılarak kümelenme analizinin yapılması küresel rekabet gücüne kavuşulmasında önemli bir basamaktır. Bu kapsamda Türk deniz taşımacılığı sektörünün kümelenme seviyesi Coğrafi Yoğunluk Katsayısı (Location Quotient (LQ)) kullanılarak ölçülmüştür. Toplam 6 istatistiki bölge dikkate alınarak yapılan incelemede TR 10 İstanbul bölgesinin tüm değişkenler açısından güçlü kümelenme özellikleri gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Kümelenmeler, Denizcilik Kümelenmeleri, Deniz Taşımacılığı Sektörü, Coğrafi Yoğunluk Katsayısı, Küresel Rekabet Gücü


Cite this article

Karahan, CB., Kırval, L. (2018). Türk Deniz Taşımacılığı Sektörünün Kümelenme Analizi. Journal of Transportation and Logistics, 3(2), 63-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2018.03.02.02

References

  • Akıncılar Tan, T. (2011). Askeri ve sivil teknolojinin birleşimi amaçlı küme modeli - Askeri gemi yapımı örneği. Doktora Tezi, Kara Harp Okulu, Ankara.
  • Alüftekin, N., Yüksel, Ö., Taş, A., Çakar, G. ve Bayraktar, F. (2009). Küresel krizden çıkışta kümelenme modeli: Tekstil ve hazır giyim sektörü örneği. ZKÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5 (10), 1-19.
  • Aziz, K.A. ve Norhashim, M. (2008). Cluster-based policy making: Assessing performance and sustaining competitiveness. Review of Policy Research, 25 (4), 349-375. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-1338.2008.00336.x.
  • Brett, V. (2007). The potential for clustering of the maritime transport sector in the Greater Dublin Region. PhD diss., National College of Ireland, Dublin.
  • Bulu, M., Eraslan, İ. H. ve Kaya, H. (2006). Türk elektronik sektörünün rekabetçilik analizi. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5(9), 49-66.
  • Deniz Ticaret Odası. (2017). 2016 Deniz Sektörü Raporu, İstanbul.
  • De Langen, P.W. (2002). Clustering and performance: the case of maritime clustering in the Netherlands. Maritime Policy and Management, 29 (3), 209-221. doi:10.1080/0308883021013260 5.
  • Delgado, M., Porter, M. E. ve Stern, S. (2010). Clusters and entrepreneurship. Journal of Economic Geography, 10 (4), 495-518. doi:10.1093/jeg/lbq010.
  • Delgado, M., Porter, M. E. ve Stern, S. (2014). Clusters, convergence, and economic performance. Research Policy, 43, 1785-1799. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2014.05.007.
  • Deval, O. ve Saman, M. (2005). Maritime cluster of Istanbul. MSc diss., City College, London.
  • Enright, M.J. (2003). Regional clusters: What we know and what we should know, In Innovation Clusters and Interregional Competition, edited by J. Bröcker et al., 99-129. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Gebeş, F. ve Battal, Ü. (2014). Türkiye’de havacılık kümelenmeleri ve finansman sorunları. Niğde Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 7 (1), 273-288.
  • Gürbüz, C. (2008). An integrated approach to the interconnected maritime services of Turkey. MSc diss., World Maritime University, Malmo.
  • Karahan, A. (2014). Kamu işletmelerinin rekabet gücü̈ analizi ve ulaştırma sektörü̈ örneği. Maliye Finans Yazıları, 28 (102), 25-44.
  • Ketels, C.H.M. ve Memedovic, O. (2008). From clusters to cluster-based economic development. Int. J. Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 1(3), 375-392. doi:10.1504/IJTLID.2008.019979.
  • Ketels, C. ve Protsiv, S. (2013). Clusters and the new growth path for Europe - Research paper on the role of clusters for the new growth path. Working Paper no14.fileadmin/documents/pdf/Workingpapers/WWWforEurope_WPS_no014_MS47.pdf.
  • Kocaoğlu, İ.U. (2013). Firma rekabet gücünü̈ artıran faktörler ve kümelenme yaklaşımı: Türkiye doğal taş kümelenmelerinin rekabet gücü̈ açısından incelenmesi. Doktora Tezi, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir.
  • Krugman, P. (1991). Increasing returns and economic geography. The Journal of Political Economy, 99(3), 483-499. doi:10.1086/261763.
  • Kumar, I., Zhalnin, A., Kim, A. ve Beaulieu, L. J. (2016). Transportation and logistics cluster competitive advantages in the U.S. regions: A cross- sectional and spatio-temporal analysis. Research in Transportation Economics, (2016), 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.retrec.2016.07.028.
  • Lazzeretti, L., Boix, R. ve Capone, F. (2009). Why do creative industries cluster? An analysis of the determinants of clustering of creative industries. IERMB Working Paper in Economics, 9 (2).
  • Lundequist, P. ve Power, D. (2002). Putting Porter into practice? Practices of regional cluster building: Evidence from Sweden. European Planning Studies, 10 (6), 685-704. doi:10.1080/0965431022000003762.
  • Mutlucan, N. C. (2015). Competitive Advantage and clusters:
Evidence from textile, wearing apparel, carpet, automotive, tourism and furniture clusters in Turkey. PhD diss., Boğaziçi University, Istanbul.
  • Nezerenko, O. ve Koppel, O. (2015). Formal and informal macro-regional transport clusters as a primary step in the design and implementation of cluster-based strategies. Transport and Telecommunication, 16 (3), 207-216. doi:10.1515/ttj-2015-0019.
  • Othman, M. R., Bruce, J. G. ve Abdul Hamid, S. (2011). The strength of Malaysian maritime cluster: The development of maritime policy. Ocean & Coastal Management, 54, 557 – 568. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.02.0 04.
  • Öz, Ö. (2004). Clusters and Competitive Advantage. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Porter, M.E. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York, NY: Free Press, MacMillan.
  • Porter, M.E. (1998). The Adam Smith address: Location, clusters, and the new microeconomics of competition. Business Economics, 98 (1), 7-13.
  • Porter, M.E. (2000). Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic Development Quarterly, 14 (1), 15-35. doi:10.1177/089124240001400105.
  • Reve, T. ve Sasson, A. (2015). Theoretical and methodological advances in cluster research. Competitiveness Review, 25 (5), 524-539. doi:10.1108/CR-06-2015-0062.
  • Rivera, L. (2014). Logistics clusters: Prevalence and impact. PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston.
  • Rivera, L., Sheffi, Y. ve Welsch, R. (2014). Logistics agglomeration in the US. Transportation Research Part A, 59, 222-238. doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2013.11.009.
  • Rocha, H. O. ve Sternberg, R. (2005). Entrepreneurship: The role of clusters theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence from Germany. Small Business Economics, 24, 267-292. doi:10.1007/s11187-005-1993-9.
  • Rosenfeld, S. A. (2003). Expanding opportunities: Cluster strategies that reach more people and more places. European Planning Studies, 11 (4), 359-377. doi: 10.1080/09654310303643.
  • Sartaş, M. (2010). Analysis of the growth dynamics in Turkish commercial shipbuilding sector and its prospects. MSc diss., Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
  • Saxenian, A.L. (1996). Inside-Out: Regional networks and industrial adaptation in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 2 (2), 41-60.
  • Van den Berg, H. ve Lewer, J. J. (2007). International Trade and Economic Growth. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
  • Viederyte, R. (2014a). Lithuanian maritime sector’s economic impact to the whole Lithuanian economy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143, 892-896. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.512.
  • Viederyte, R. (2014b). Lithuanian maritime sector’s clustering economic impact evaluation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 156, 292-297. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.11.191.
  • Vom Hofe, R. ve Chen, K. (2006). Whither or not industrial cluster: conclusions or confusions?. The Industrial Geographer, 4 (1), 2-28. geographer.lib.indstate.edu/vom%20Hofe.pdf.
  • Wolfe, D. A. ve Gertler, M. S. (2004). Clusters from the inside and out: Local dynamics and global linkages. Urban Studies, 41 (5/6), 1071-1093. doi:10.1080/00420980410001675832
  • Wijnost, N. (2006). Dynamic European Maritime Clusters. Amsterdam, NL: IOS Press BV.

Volume 3, Issue 2, 2018

Journal of Transportation and Logistics

Volume 3, Issue 2, 2018

Pages 63-80

Received: Feb. 10, 2018

Accepted: Sept. 12, 2018

Published: Oct. 9, 2018

Full Text [1.2 MB]

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).

Istanbul University Press, 2018.