State Intervention In Public Transportation In Ghana
Ph.D., Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Accra, Ghana, firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper examines state involvement in Ghana’s public transport delivery. It mainly explores the rationale for the creation of the Metro Mass Transit (MMT) system as a state-backed transit organization despite the Ghanaian Government’s chequered history in the transit industry. The empirical basis of this paper is both primary and secondary data with inclination toward qualitative methodologies. Findings indicate that state intervention in Ghana’s mass transit provision have been one of addressing various types of market failures. The paper also demonstrates how the Government was, inter alia, politically motivated to set up the MMT as a single dominant public transit company in Ghana to enjoy state patronage. Though the paper reveals political interference in MMT’s operations, the public transit continues to register significant strides in alleviating transit problems encountered by both urban and rural commuters. The paper concludes that state-led transit investment which is closely-tied with private capital promotes efficient transit systems that are socially equitable, ecologically friendly and economically sustainable.
Keywords: Transport, State Intervention, Ghana
Toplu Taşımada Kamu Müdahalesi: Gana Örneği
Bu çalışmada, Gana’nın toplu taşıma sisteminde kamu katılımı incelenmektedir. Gana Hükümeti'nin taşıma sektöründeki inişli çıkışlı geçmişine rağmen, devlet destekli bir kuruluş olan Metro Toplu Taşıma (MMT) sisteminin oluşturulmasının gerekçesi araştırılmıştır. Bu makalenin ampirik temeli, kalitatif metodolojilerden hem birincil hem de ikincil verilere dayanmaktadır. Bulgular, Gana’nın toplu taşıma imkânlarına dönük kamu müdahalesinin çeşitli başarısızlıklar yaşadığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca Gana Hükümeti’nin, kamu himayesini sürdürebilmek için tekel bir toplu taşıma şirketi olarak MMT'yi kurmak için politik olarak nasıl hareket ettikleri de açıklanmıştır. Makalede, MMT’nin operasyonlarındaki politik etkileşim açıklanmaya çalışılmış ve kentsel ve kırsal yolcuların karşılaştıkları transit sorunları hafifletmek için toplu taşımanın önemli adımlar kaydettiği de belirtilmiştir. Çalışmada, özel sermaye ile sıkı sıkıya bağlı olan kamu kaynaklı transit yatırımın, sosyal olarak eşit, ekolojik ve ekonomik açıdan sürdürülebilir verimli geçiş sistemlerini desteklediği sonucuna varılmıştır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Ulaştırma, Kamu Müdahalesi, Gana
Cite this article
Yobo, E. (2018). State Intervention In Public Transportation In Ghana. Journal of Transportation and Logistics, 3(1), 35-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2018.03.01.04
- AFD (Agence Francaise de Developpement) & MEEDDM the French Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea). (2009). Who pays what for urban transport? Handbook of Good Practices. CODATU.
- Afful, D. (2011). The challenges confronting private bus operators in Ghana. MBA Dissertation . Maastricht School of Management.
- Bremmer, I. (2009). State capitalism comes of age. Accesed 24 Februrary 2013 http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/64948/ian-bremmer/state-capitalism-comes-of-age
- Bremmer, I. (2010). The end of the free market: Who wins the warbetween states and corporations? New York: Penguin Group
- Bullard, R. D. (2003). Addressing urban transportation equity in the United States. Fordham Urban Law Journal , 31 (5), 1183-1209.
- Cervero, R. (1990). Transit pricing research: A review and synthesis. Transportation, 17 (2), 117-140.
- Cervero, R. (2011). State roles in providing affordable mass transport services for low-income residents. Berkeley: International Transport Forum.
- Deakin, E., & Harvey, G. (1996). Transportation pricing strategies for California: An assessment of congestion, emissions, energy, and equity impacts. Berkeley: The University of California Transportation Center.
- Diana, M., & Daraio, C. (2010). Performance indicators for urban public transport systems with a focus on transport policy. 12th WCTR . Lisbon, Portugal.
- Docherty, I., Shaw, J., & Gather, M. (2004). State intervention in contemporary transport. Journal of Transport Geography , 12, 257–264.
- Dombroski, M. A. (2005). Securing access to transportation for the urban poor. Columbia Law Review , 503 (2), 503-536.
- European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT). (2004). Improving access to public transport. Paris: OECD.
- Fouracre, P. R., Kwakye, E. A., Okyere, J. N., & Silcock, D. T. (1994). Public transport in Ghanaian Cities - A case of union power. Transport Reviews , 14 (1), 45-61.
- Gbadamosi, K. T. (2010). An evaluation of the impact of bus rapid transit in urban intra-city passenger movement in Lagos State. A paper to be presented at WCTR 2010, Lisbon . Nigeria: Centre for Transport Studies.
- Grinder, W. E., & Hagel, J. (1977). Toward a theory of state capitalism: Ultimate decision-making and class structure. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 1(1), 59-79.
- IBIS. (2005). Study of urban public transport condition in Accra, Ghana. Accra: IBIS Transport Consultants Ltd.
- International Energy Agency (IEA). (2005). CO2 Emissions from fuel combustion: 1971–2003. Paris: IEA Publications.
- Kverndokk, S., & Rosendahl, K. E. (2010). The effects of transport regulation on the oil market: Does market power matter? Washington, DC: Resource for the Future.
- Litman, T. (2002). Evaluating transportation equity. World Transport Policy & Practice, 8 (3), 50-65.
- Lucas, K. (2006). Providing transport for social inclusion within a framework for environmental justice in the UK. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice , 801-809.
- Marsden, G., & Rye, T. (2010). The governance of transport and climate change. Journal of Transport Geography , 18, 669-678.
- Mbara, T. C. (2002). Transport: How have African cities managed the sector? What are the possible options? Paper presented at the Urban & City Management Course for Africa . Kampala.
- MoFEP (Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning). (2005). The budget statement and economic policy of the Government of Ghana. MoFEP (Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning). (2006). The budget statement and economic policy of the Government of Ghana.
- MoFEP (Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning). (2007). The budget statement and economic policy of the Government of Ghana.
- MoFEP(Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning). (2004). The budget statement and economic policy of the Government of Ghana.
- Morales, J. A., & Sachs, J. D. (1990). State capitalism and the operation of the public sector. In J. D. Sachs, Developing country debt and economic performance (pp. 189 - 202). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Musacchio, A., & Lazzarini, S. G. (2012). Leviathan in business: Varieties of state capitalism and their implications for economic performance. Working Paper. Harvard Business School
- Ogus, A. 1994. Regulation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Poku-Boansi, M., & Adarkwa, K. K. (2011). An analysis of the supply of urban public transport services. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13 (2), 28-40.
- Pucher, J., Korattyswaroopam, N., & Ittyerah, N. (2004). The crisis of public transport in India: Overwhelming Needs but Limited Resources. Journal of Public Transportation, 7 (4), 1-20.
- Smart Growth America. (2011). Recent lessons from the stimulus:Transportation funding and job creation. Washington, DC.
- Sundeen, M., & Reed, J. B. 2006. Surface transportation funding: Options for states. Washington, D.C.: NCSL.
- Trans-Africa. (2010). Public transport in Sub-Saharan Africa: Major trends and case studies. Brussel: Trans-Africa Consortium.
- Ubbels, B., & Nijkamp, P. (2002). Unconventional funding of urban public transport. Transportation Research Part D 7 , 317–32.
- Wilson, T. (2006). Public transport operations in Ghana. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from modernghana: http://www.modernghana.com/news/102058/1/public-transport-operations-in-ghana.html.
- Winston, C. (2000). Government failure in urban transportation. Fiscal Studies ,21 (4), 403–425.
- World Bank. (2012). Kenya to Launch Rapid Road and Rail Transport to Ease the Country’s Urban Traffic Congestion. Accessed 15 December 2012 http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/08/02/kenya-launch-rapid-road-rail-transport-ease-urban-traffic-congestion.
- Yobo, E. (2014). Role of the state in Ghana’s road transport system. Researchjournali’s Journal of Public Policy, 1(3), 1-13.
- Yobo, E., Kunawotor, M. E; Apau, E. V, & Osei, B. (2015). Public management of the Ghana’s Metro Mass Transit Limited. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(5), 1186-1200.